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To appreciate the concrete solutions described in this report it's important to understand that ceramic cement is not a new discovery when it comes to the creation of a superior quality concrete. Not by a long shot! The use of pozzolan / geopolymer ceramic concrete dates back to structures such as the Pyramids, the Great Wall of China, the Roman Pantheon and aqueducts, the Greek Parthenon. the Iron Pillar of Delhi and the Angkor Wat temple in Cambodia ( energy/2009/05/better-cement.html ).

More recently ceramic cement studies have been conducted at Argonne National Labs (ANL). This DOE sponsored research, our own C3/EcoC3 research program, and multiple global academic studies have revealed extraordinary properties and applications ranging from superior concrete repair / replacement solutions, deep oil well lining, human bone repair, underwater applications, and nuclear & hazardous waste containment.

For the purpose of clarification: Cement is herein defined as a basic binder (glue if you will), while the final material produced, when aggregates such as gravel and sand are added to a cement binder of choice, is referred to as concrete.


During the 20th Century limestone-bonded Portland concrete became the most used man-made material in the world. The concrete / building / construction industries constitute the largest interdependent industry in the world! Approximately 8 cubic kilometers of concrete are made each year—this equates to more than one cubic meter for every person on Earth.

Concrete powers a $35 billion dollar industry, employing more than two million workers in the United States alone. More than 55,000 miles (89,000 km) of highways in the U.S. are paved with traditional Portland concrete material. Reinforced, pre-stressed, and pre-cast are the most widely used types of Portland concrete extensions.

Portland cement was invented in Leeds, England by Joseph Aspdin in 1824, based on the limestone he gathered from the nearby Isle of Portland quarry and processed in his kitchen.  Even though time would prove that limestone wasn't the best binder choice, Portland's water-activated ease of use and versatility went on to become the concrete of choice in engineering the foundations of our modern world.

Unfortunately numerous engineering studies throughout the world have verified that Portland concrete bridges, tunnels, dams, levees, highways, and buildings erected in the early to mid-20th Century are dangerously cracking, crumbling, corroding, and collapsing. The inherent shortcomings of Portland concrete are well-documented including susceptibility to salt / sulfate erosion and corrosion of the reenforcing metal rebar due to the residual water and dissolved oxygen. Which over a relatively short period of time (approx. 30 to 50-years or sooner) seriously reduces Portland's dependability and durability.

It is also important to understand that there are no bad guys when it comes to cement binders. No one set out to create a problematic concrete. It was only after 20th Century microscopic examinations began to internally examine the results of the limestone / gypsum, metal rebar-based structures we had erected that our generations began to discover that we have inherited a porous, corrosive, crack prone cementitious chemistry. Once this flawed chemistry was detected, billions have valiantly been spent trying to rectify the inherent problems, and progress has definitely been made, but the basic erosion/corrosion problems remain.


Furthermore, until the recent advent of ceramic cement there were no viable alternatives.

The common perception is that all concrete is pretty much the same but nothing could be further from the truth. Concretes made from phosphate-bonded cement are not susceptible to harmful erosion/corrosive problems and have serious time-tested durability. Therefore, the difference in the structural integrity and durability of limestone-bonded and phosphate-bonded concrete is 'literally' day and night i.e., dramatic!

The superior bonding characteristics of ceramic cement presently enable the rapid repair of numerous Portland concrete failures including leaky tunnels, roadways, runways, and elevated road structures. The importance of this unique phosphate-bonded concrete value is verified by 30-years use by the U.S. Army Corp. of Engineers and numerous State DOT Road Depts for Portland concrete repair.

With this proven value in mind, our water-activated EkoRok / DekoRok / X-Rok formulas, (a) contain no toxic ingredients (including fly ash & ammonia), (b) do not crack with aging, (c) eliminate rebar corrosion, (d) can be applied using conventional concrete applications in cold, hot and wet conditions, (e) withstand temperatures up to 2500 F, (e) achieve 4/5000 psi in 3-hrs., 7000 psi in 24-hrs., 10/12,000 psi in 28-days, (f) strongly self-bond (eliminating problematic cold joints) while tenaciously and naturally bonding with a wide variety of indigenous aggregate material including cellulose, mineral and metal, (g) increase structural resistance to earthquakes, tornados and floods, (h) are resistant to salt water erosion, insects, mold, moss and acid rain (i) and when needed shield all levels of radiation.

Added to this list of chemically-bonded phosphate ceramic value, our patented X-Rok formulas are uniquely designed to shield the entire electromagnetic field, including RF, Microwave, x-ray, gamma, and neutron emissions! All of our C3 ceramic cement products are blended in existing Portland cement production facilities and applied using conventional concrete application technologies, thereby eliminating the need for costly cement industry production changes and/or learning curves for experienced concrete users.


When it comes to the adverse CO2 emissions associated with limestone / gypsum Portland cement production (one-ton of CO2 for each ton of Portland), Argonne National Lab studies revealed that the chemical reaction inherent in calcining magnesium rather than limestone emits 40% less CO2 ( First/dp/0080445055/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1328935462&sr=1-1 ).

And finally; it's important to not confuse our C3 chemically-bonded phosphate cements with mono ammonium phosphate cement and/or magnesium oxychloride and magnesium sulfate cement. Monoammonium phosphate cement produces good results while the ammonia released fumes serious limit usefulness (especially for indoor applications). Magnesium oxychloride / sulfate cements appear to provide good results relative to psi strength, fire resistance, etc., while they break down (chemically reverse) in the presence of water and metals. This statement is backed up by  the extensive scientific studies revealed in Dr. Mark Shand's book, ‘Magnesia Cements’ ( ).


Pozzolan / geopolymer based ceramic cement structures have stood the test of time. Our significantly advanced adaptations of these ancient ceramic cement chemistries once again provide timely solutions that address the increasing demand for 'green' products, reliable-long-lasting infrastructure repair, superior construction methods, and most importantly the need for healthy, sustainable, affordable living standards 'for all people'.


Report prepared and shared by - 

Judd Hamilton Chairman/CEO Ceramic Cement Corporation

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